Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Pressure BioSciences, Inc., and its wholly-owned subsidiary PBI BioSeq, Inc. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to our current year presentation.
Recent Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard requires the recognition of assets and liabilities arising from lease transactions on the balance sheet and the disclosure of key information about leasing arrangements. Accordingly, a lessee will recognize a lease asset for its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability for the corresponding lease obligation. Both the asset and liability will initially be measured at the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. Subsequent measurement, including the presentation of expenses and cash flows, will depend on the classification of the lease as either finance or an operating lease. Initial costs directly attributable to negotiating and arranging the lease will be included in the asset. Lessees will also be required to provide additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures regarding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. We will adopt ASC 842 effective January 1, 2019. We are currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which requires restricted cash to be presented with cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows and disclosure of how the statement of cash flows reconciles to the balance sheet if restricted cash is shown separately from cash and cash equivalents on the balance sheet. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted the ASU 2016-18 on December 15, 2017.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business to provide additional guidance with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. The Company early adopted the ASU 2016-18 on December 15, 2017 starting with its purchase of BaroFold assets.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The standard amends various aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The most significant impact to our consolidated financial statements relates to the recognition and measurement of equity investments at fair value with changes recognized in Net income. The amendment also updates certain presentation and disclosure requirements. The adoption of ASU 2016-01 did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements. The adoption of ASU 2016-01 is expected to increase volatility in net income as changes in the fair value of available-for-sale equity investments and changes in observable prices of equity investments without readily determinable fair values will be recorded in net income.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, using the modified retrospective method. This guidance supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under US GAAP. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company updated its accounting policy for the new standard based on a detailed review of its business and contracts. Based on the new guidance, the Company continues to recognize revenue at a point in time for the majority of its contracts with customers, which is generally when products are either shipped or delivered. Therefore, the adoption of ASC 606 did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
We recognize revenue in accordance with FASB ASC 606, ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and ASC 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs—Contracts with Customers. Revenue is measured based on a consideration specified in a contract with a customer, and excludes any sales incentives and amounts collected on behalf of third parties. We enter into sales contracts that may consist of multiple distinct performance obligations where certain performance obligations of the sales contract are not delivered in one reporting period. We measure and allocate revenue according to ASC 606-10.
We identify a performance obligation as distinct if both the following criteria are true: the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining the standalone selling price (“SSP”) and allocation of consideration from a contract to the individual performance obligations, and the appropriate timing of revenue recognition, is the result of significant qualitative and quantitative judgments. Management considers a variety of factors such as historical sales, usage rates, costs, and expected margin, which may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each performance obligation in making these estimates. While changes in the allocation of the SSP between performance obligations will not affect the amount of total revenue recognized for a particular contract, any material changes could impact the timing of revenue recognition, which would have a material effect on our financial position and result of operations. This is because the contract consideration is allocated to each performance obligation, delivered or undelivered, at the inception of the contract based on the SSP of each distinct performance obligation.
Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue.
Shipping and handling costs associated with outbound freight after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are in included in cost of revenues as consistent with treatment in prior periods.
Our current Barocycler® instruments require a basic level of instrumentation expertise to set-up for initial operation. To support a favorable first experience for our customers, upon customer request, and for an additional fee, will send a highly trained technical representative to the customer site to install Barocycler®s that we sell, lease, or rent through our domestic sales force. The installation process includes uncrating and setting up the instrument, followed by introductory user training. Our sales arrangements do not provide our customers with a right of return. Any shipping costs billed to customers are recognized as revenue.
The majority of our instrument and consumable contracts contain pricing that is based on the market price for the product at the time of delivery. Our obligations to deliver product volumes are typically satisfied and revenue is recognized when control of the product transfers to our customers. Concurrent with the transfer of control, we typically receive the right to payment for the shipped product and the customer has significant risks and rewards of ownership of the product. Payment terms require customers to pay shortly after delivery and do not contain significant financing components.
We apply ASC 845, “Accounting for Non-Monetary Transactions”, to account for products and services sold through non-cash transactions based on the fair values of the products and services involved, where such values can be determined. Non-cash exchanges would require revenue to be recognized at recorded cost or carrying value of the assets or services sold if any of the following conditions apply:
In accordance with FASB ASC 840, Leases, we account for our lease agreements under the operating method. We record revenue over the life of the lease term and we record depreciation expense on a straight-line basis over the thirty-six-month estimated useful life of the Barocycler® instrument. The depreciation expense associated with assets under lease agreement is included in the “Cost of PCT products and services” line item in our accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Many of our lease and rental agreements allow the lessee to purchase the instrument at any point during the term of the agreement with partial or full credit for payments previously made. We pay all maintenance costs associated with the instrument during the term of the leases.
Revenue from government grants is recorded when expenses are incurred under the grant in accordance with the terms of the grant award.
Deferred revenue represents amounts received from grants and service contracts for which the related revenues have not been recognized because one or more of the revenue recognition criteria have not been met. Revenue from service contracts is recorded ratably over the length of the contract.
Disaggregation of revenue
In the following table, revenue is disaggregated by primary geographical market, major product line, and timing of revenue recognition.
Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations
The following table includes estimated revenue expected to be recognized in the future related to performance obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) at the end of the reporting period.
All consideration from contracts with customers is included in the amounts presented above.
The Company recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that the Company otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. These costs are included in selling, general, and administrative expenses. The costs to obtain a contract are recorded immediately in the period when the revenue is recognized either upon shipment or installation. The costs to obtain a service contract are considered immaterial when spread over the life of the contract so the Company records the costs immediately upon billing.
Use of Estimates
To prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, we are required to make significant estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. In addition, significant estimates were made in projecting future cash flows to quantify deferred tax assets, the costs associated with fulfilling our warranty obligations for the instruments that we sell, and the estimates employed in our calculation of fair value of stock options awarded and warrant derivative liability. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions used.
Our financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents, and trade receivables. We have cash investment policies which, among other things, limit investments to investment-grade securities. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, and the risk with respect to trade receivables is further mitigated by the fact that many of our customers are government institutions, large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and academic laboratories.
The following table illustrates the level of concentration as a percentage of total revenues during the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. The Top Five Customers category may include federal agency revenues if applicable.
The following table illustrates the level of concentration as a percentage of net accounts receivable balance as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The Top Five Customers category may include federal agency receivable balances if applicable.
CBM Industries (Taunton, MA) has recently become the manufacturer of the Barocycler® 2320EXT. CBM is ISO 13485:2003 and 9001:2008 Certified. CBM provides us with precision manufacturing services that include management support services to meet our specific application and operational requirements. Among the services provided by CBM to us are:
At this time, we believe that outsourcing the manufacturing of our new Barocycler® 2320EXT to CBM is the most cost-effective method for us to obtain and maintain ISO Certified, CE and CSA Marked instruments. CBM’s close proximity to our South Easton, MA facility is a significant asset enabling interactions between our Engineering, R&D, and Manufacturing groups and their counterparts at CBM. CBM was instrumental in helping PBI achieve CE Marking on our Barocycler 2320EXT, as announced on February 2, 2017.
Although we currently manufacture and assemble the Barozyme HT48, Barocycler® HUB440, the SHREDDER SG3, and most of our consumables at our South Easton, MA facility, we plan to take advantage of the established relationship with CBM and transfer manufacturing of the entire Barocycler® product line, future instruments, and other products to CBM.
The Barocycler® NEP3229, launched in 2008, and manufactured by the BIT Group, will be phased out over the next several years and replaced by the new state-of-the-art Barocycler® HUB and Barozyme HT48 product lines.
Investment in Available-For-Sale Equity Securities
As of March 31, 2018, we held 100,250 shares of common stock of Everest Investments Holdings S.A. (“Everest”), a Polish publicly traded company listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. We account for this investment in accordance with ASC 320 “Investments — Debt and Equity Securities” as securities available for sale. On March 31, 2018, our consolidated balance sheet reflected the fair value of our investment in Everest to be approximately $15,000, based on the closing price of Everest shares of $0.15 USD per share on that day. The carrying value of our investment in Everest common stock held will change from period to period based on the closing price of the common stock of Everest as of the balance sheet date. The change in market value since the receipt of stock was determined to be other than temporary. We recorded $4,730 as an impairment loss in the first quarter of 2018.
Computation of Loss per Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus additional common shares that would have been outstanding if dilutive potential common shares had been issued. For purposes of this calculation, convertible preferred stock, common stock dividends, and warrants and options to acquire common stock, are all considered common stock equivalents in periods in which they have a dilutive effect and are excluded from this calculation in periods in which these are anti-dilutive to our net loss.
The following table illustrates our computation of loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017:
The following table presents securities that could potentially dilute basic loss per share in the future. For all periods presented, the potentially dilutive securities were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share because these securities would have been anti-dilutive to our net loss. The Series D Convertible Preferred Stock, Series G Convertible Preferred Stock, Series H and H2 Convertible Preferred Stock, Series J Convertible Preferred Stock and Series K Convertible Preferred Stock are presented below as if they were converted into common shares according to the conversion terms.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation Expense
We maintain equity compensation plans under which incentive stock options and non-qualified stock options are granted to employees, independent members of our Board of Directors and outside consultants. We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period using the Black-Scholes formula to estimate the fair value of the stock options on the date of grant.
Determining Fair Value of Stock Option Grants
Valuation and Amortization Method - The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes pricing model based on certain assumptions. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the vesting period.
Expected Term - The Company uses the simplified calculation of expected life, as the Company does not currently have sufficient historical exercise data on which to base an estimate of expected term. Using this method, the expected term is determined using the average of the vesting period and the contractual life of the stock options granted.
Expected Volatility - Expected volatility is based on the Company’s historical stock volatility data over the expected term of the award.
Risk-Free Interest Rate - The Company bases the risk-free interest rate used in the Black-Scholes valuation method on the implied yield currently available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term.
Forfeitures - The Company records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. The Company estimated a forfeiture rate of 5% for awards granted based on historical experience and future expectations of options vesting. The Company used this historical rate as our assumption in calculating future stock-based compensation expense.
The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense of $86,020 and $74,529 for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The following table summarizes the effect of this stock-based compensation expense within each of the line items of our costs and expenses within our Consolidated Statements of Operations:
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Due to their short maturities, the carrying amounts for cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair value. Long-term liabilities are primarily related to convertible debentures and deferred revenue with carrying values that approximate fair value.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”) as it related to all financial assets and financial liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis.
The Company generally defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which classifies the inputs used in measuring fair values. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring the Company to develop its own assumptions. A slight change in an unobservable input like volatility could have a significant impact on the fair value measurement of the derivative liability.
Financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company has determined that its financial assets are classified within Level 1 and its financial liabilities are currently classified within Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy. The development of the unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements and fair value calculations are the responsibility of the Company’s management.
Adoption of ASU 2017-11
The Company changed its method of accounting for the Debentures, Debenture Warrants and Series D Warrants through the early adoption of ASU 2017-11 during the year ended December 31, 2017 on a modified retrospective basis. Accordingly, the Company reclassified the warrant derivative and conversion option derivative liabilities to additional paid in capital on its January 1, 2017 consolidated balance sheets totaling approximately $2.6 million, reduced debt discount by approximately $0.9 million and recorded the cumulative effect of the adoption to the beginning balance of accumulated deficit of approximately $2.4 million. This resulted to an increase in stock warrants by $2.6 million and additional paid-in capital by $1.4 million. The following table provides a reconciliation of the warrant derivative liability, convertible debt, conversion option derivative liability, stock warrant, additional paid-in capital and accumulated deficit on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2016:
The following tables set forth the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2018:
The following tables set forth the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2017:
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef