Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
(3) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
i. Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Pressure BioSciences, Inc., and its wholly-owned subsidiary PBI BioSeq, Inc. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
ii. Use of Estimates
To prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, we are required to make significant estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. In addition, significant estimates were made in projecting future cash flows to quantify impairment of assets, deferred tax assets, the costs associated with fulfilling our warranty obligations for the instruments that we sell, and the estimates employed in our calculation of fair value of stock options awarded, beneficial conversion features and derivative liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from the estimates and assumptions used.
iii Recent Accounting Pronouncement
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard is effective for the Company for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is evaluating the impact of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2019, the FASB, issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The standard is effective for the Company for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020 for the Company and for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021 and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is evaluating the impact of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2020-06, Debt with Conversion and Other Options and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. The standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023 for the Company. The Company is evaluating the impact of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
iv. Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue in accordance with FASB ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and ASC 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs—Contracts with Customers. Revenue is measured based on a consideration specified in a contract with a customer, and excludes any sales incentives and amounts collected on behalf of third parties. We enter into sales contracts that may consist of multiple distinct performance obligations where certain performance obligations of the sales contract are not delivered in one reporting period. We measure and allocate revenue according to ASC 606-10.
We identify a performance obligation as distinct if both the following criteria are true: the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining the standalone selling price (“SSP”) and allocation of consideration from a contract to the individual performance obligations, and the appropriate timing of revenue recognition, is the result of significant qualitative and quantitative judgments. Management considers a variety of factors such as historical sales, usage rates, costs, and expected margin, which may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each performance obligation in making these estimates. While changes in the allocation of the SSP between performance obligations will not affect the amount of total revenue recognized for a particular contract, any material changes could impact the timing of revenue recognition, which would have a material effect on our financial position and result of operations. This is because the contract consideration is allocated to each performance obligation, delivered or undelivered, at the inception of the contract based on the SSP of each distinct performance obligation.
Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue.
Shipping and handling costs associated with outbound freight after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are in included in cost of revenues as consistent with treatment in prior periods.
Our current Barocycler® instruments require a basic level of instrumentation expertise to set-up for initial operation. To support a favorable first experience for our customers, upon customer request, and for an additional fee, we will send a highly trained technical representative to the customer site to install Barocyclers® that we sell, lease, or rent through our domestic sales force. The installation process includes uncrating and setting up the instrument, followed by introductory user training. Our sales arrangements do not provide our customers with a right of return. Any shipping costs billed to customers are recognized as revenue.
The majority of our instrument and consumable contracts contain pricing that is based on the market price for the product at the time of delivery. Our obligations to deliver product volumes are typically satisfied and revenue is recognized when control of the product transfers to our customers. Concurrent with the transfer of control, we typically receive the right to payment for the shipped product and the customer has significant risks and rewards of ownership of the product. Payment terms require customers to pay shortly after delivery and do not contain significant financing components.
Revenue from scientific services customers is recognized upon completion of each stage of service as defined in service agreements.
We apply ASC 845, “Accounting for Non-Monetary Transactions”, to account for products and services sold through non-cash transactions based on the fair values of the products and services involved, where such values can be determined. Non-cash exchanges would require revenue to be recognized at recorded cost or carrying value of the assets or services sold if any of the following conditions apply:
We recognize revenue for non-cash transactions at recorded cost or carrying value of the assets or services sold.
We account for lease agreements of our instruments in accordance with ASC 842, Leases. We record revenue over the life of the lease term and we record depreciation expense on a straight-line basis over the thirty-six-month estimated useful life of the Barocycler® instrument. The depreciation expense associated with assets under lease agreement is included in the “Cost of PCT products and services” line item in our accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Many of our lease and rental agreements allow the lessee to purchase the instrument at any point during the term of the agreement with partial or full credit for payments previously made. We pay all maintenance costs associated with the instrument during the term of the leases.
Revenue from government grants is recorded when expenses are incurred under the grant in accordance with the terms of the grant award.
Deferred revenue represents amounts received from grants and service contracts for which the related revenues have not been recognized because one or more of the revenue recognition criteria have not been met. Revenue from service contracts is recorded ratably over the length of the contract.
Disaggregation of revenue
In the following table, revenue is disaggregated by primary geographical market, major product line, and timing of revenue recognition.
Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations
The following table includes estimated revenue expected to be recognized in the future related to performance obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) at the end of the reporting period.
All consideration from contracts with customers is included in the amounts presented above.
The Company recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that the Company otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. These costs are included in selling, general, and administrative expenses. The costs to obtain a contract are recorded immediately in the period when the revenue is recognized either upon shipment or installation. The costs to obtain a service contract are considered immaterial when spread over the life of the contract so the Company records the costs immediately upon billing.
v. Beneficial Conversion Features
In accordance with FASB ASC 470-20, “Debt with Conversion and Other Options” the Company records a beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) related to the issuance of convertible debt or preferred stock instruments that have conversion features at fixed rates that are in-the-money when issued. The BCF for the convertible instruments is recognized and measured by allocating a portion of the proceeds equal to the intrinsic value of that feature to additional paid-in capital. The intrinsic value is generally calculated at the commitment date as the difference between the conversion price and the fair value of the common stock or other securities into which the security is convertible, multiplied by the number of shares into which the security is convertible. If certain other securities are issued with the convertible security, the proceeds are allocated among the different components. The portion of the proceeds allocated to the convertible security is divided by the contractual number of the conversion shares to determine the effective conversion price, which is used to measure the BCF. The effective conversion price is used to compute the intrinsic value. The value of the BCF is limited to the basis that is initially allocated to the convertible security.
vi. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Our policy is to invest available cash in short-term, investment grade interest-bearing obligations, including money market funds, and bank and corporate debt instruments. Securities purchased with initial maturities of three months or less are valued at cost plus accrued interest, which approximates fair value, and are classified as cash equivalents.
vii. Research and Development
Research and development costs, which are comprised of costs incurred in performing research and development activities including wages and associated employee benefits, facilities, consumable products and overhead costs that are expensed as incurred. In support of our research and development activities we utilize our Barocycler instruments that are capitalized as fixed assets and depreciated over their expected useful life.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (average cost) or net realizable value. The cost of Barocyclers consists of the cost charged by the contract manufacturer. The cost of manufactured goods includes material, freight-in, direct labor, and applicable overhead. The composition of inventory as of December 31, is as follows:
ix. Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. For financial reporting purposes, depreciation is recognized using the straight-line method, allocating the cost of the assets over their estimated useful lives of three years for certain laboratory equipment, from three to five years for management information systems and office equipment, and three years for all PCT finished units classified as fixed assets.
x. Intangible Assets
We have classified as intangible assets, costs associated with the fair value of acquired intellectual property. Intangible assets, including patents, are being amortized on a straight-line basis over nine years. We perform an annual review of our intangible assets for impairment. We capitalize any costs to renew or extend the term of our intangible assets. When impairment is indicated, any excess of carrying value over fair value is recorded as a loss. As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the outstanding balance for intangible assets was $490,385 and $576,923, respectively.
xi. Long-Lived Assets
The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment in accordance with the guidance of the FASB ASC 360-10-05, Property, Plant, and Equipment, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of an asset to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such asset is considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. Through December 31, 2020, the Company had not experienced impairment losses on its long-lived assets.
Our financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables. We have cash investment policies which, among other things, limit investments to investment-grade securities. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, and the risk with respect to trade receivables is further mitigated by the fact that many of our customers are government institutions and university labs. Allowances are provided for estimated amounts of accounts receivable which may not be collected. At December 31, 2020, we determined that no allowance against accounts receivable was necessary.
The following table illustrates the level of concentration of the below two groups within revenue as a percentage of total revenues during the years ended December 31:
The following table illustrates the level of concentration of the below two groups within accounts receivable as a percentage of total accounts receivable balance as of December 31:
Investment in Equity Securities
As of December 31, 2020, we held 100,250 shares of common stock of Nexity Global SA, (a Polish publicly traded company). On October 23, 2020 Everest Investments S.A. changed its name to Nexity Global S.A. Nexity is and Everest was listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
We had exchanged 33,334 shares of our common stock for the 100,250 shares we had held in Everest (before the Nexity Merger). We account for this investment in accordance with ASC 320 “Investments — Debt and Equity Securities”. ASC 320 requires equity investments with readily determinable fair values to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income.
As of December 31, 2020, our consolidated balance sheet reflected the fair value, determined on a recurring basis based on Level 1 inputs, of our investment in Nexity to be $517,001. We recorded $500,358 as an unrealized gain during the year ended December 31, 2020 for changes in market value.
xiii. Computation of Loss per Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus additional common shares that would have been outstanding if dilutive potential common shares had been issued. For purposes of this calculation, convertible preferred stock, common stock dividends, warrants to acquire preferred stock convertible into common stock, and warrants and options to acquire common stock, are all considered common stock equivalents in periods in which they have a dilutive effect and are excluded from this calculation in periods in which these are anti-dilutive. The following table illustrates our computation of loss per share for the years ended December 31:
The following table presents securities that could potentially dilute basic loss per share in the future. For all periods presented, the potentially dilutive securities were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share because these securities would have been anti-dilutive for the years ended December 31:
xiv. Accounting for Income Taxes
We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets, subject to valuation allowances, and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting and income tax purposes. The Company considers many factors when assessing the likelihood of future realization of our deferred tax assets, including recent cumulative earnings experience by taxing jurisdiction, expectations of future taxable income or loss, the carry-forward periods available to us for tax reporting purposes, and other relevant factors. A valuation allowance is established if it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. If substantial changes in the Company’s ownership should occur, as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, there could be significant limitations on the amount of net loss carry forwards that could be used to offset future taxable income.
Tax positions must meet a “more likely than not” recognition threshold at the effective date to be recognized. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not have any uncertain tax positions. No interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions were accrued at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
xv. Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
We maintain equity compensation plans under which incentive stock options and non-qualified stock options are granted to employees, independent members of our Board of Directors and outside consultants. We recognize equity compensation expense over the requisite service period using the Black-Scholes formula to estimate the fair value of the stock options on the date of grant. Employee and non employee awards are accounted for under ASC 718 where the awards are valued at grant date.
Determining Fair Value of Stock Option Grants
Valuation and Amortization Method - The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes pricing model based on certain assumptions. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the vesting period, which generally is over three years.
Expected Term - The Company uses the simplified calculation of expected life, described in the FASB ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, as the Company does not currently have sufficient historical exercise data on which to base an estimate of expected term. Using this method, the expected term is determined using the average of the vesting period and the contractual life of the stock options granted.
Expected Volatility - Expected volatility is based on the Company’s historical stock volatility data over the expected term of the award.
Risk-Free Interest Rate - The Company bases the risk-free interest rate used in the Black-Scholes valuation method on the implied yield currently available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term.
Forfeitures - As required by FASB ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, the Company records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. The Company estimated a forfeiture rate of 5% for awards granted based on historical experience and future expectations of options vesting. We used this historical rate as our assumption in calculating future stock-based compensation expense.
The following table summarizes the assumptions we utilized for grants of stock options to the three sub-groups of our stock option recipients during the year ended December 31, 2019 (there were no option grants in the year ended December 31, 2020):
We recognized stock-based compensation expense of $488,792 and $1,117,277 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The following table summarizes the effect of this stock-based compensation expense within each of the line items within our accompanying consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31:
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the total fair value of stock options awarded was $0 and $817,722, respectively.
As of December 31, 2020, total unrecognized compensation cost related to the unvested stock-based awards was $304,900, which is expected to be recognized over weighted average period of 1.59 years.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. We incurred $19,572 in 2020 and $23,797 in 2019 for advertising.
xvii. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Due to their short maturities, the carrying amounts for cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair value. Long-term liabilities include debt with a fair value of $419,320 (carrying amount $527,039) and deferred revenue with a carrying value that approximates fair value. The Company has not elected to carry any of its assets or liabilities at fair value, as allowed by the FASB’s statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 159, “The Fair Value option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.”
xviii. Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”) as it related to financial assets and financial liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the consolidated financial statements on a recurring basis.
The Company generally defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price). The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which classifies the inputs used in measuring fair values. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company has determined that its financial assets are currently classified within Level 1. The Company does not have any financial liabilities that are required to be measured on a recurring basis at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
The following tables set forth the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2020:
The following tables set forth the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2019:
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef